United Kingdom

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The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained

The United Kingdom (abbreviation: U.K. or UK), full name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly referred to as Britain, is a European country comprising England, Scotland, Wales, and the six northern counties of Ireland (Northern Ireland). Its capital city is London. The UK has a population of more than 62 million. It has no official language, although the de facto official language is (British) English. A highly developed country, the UK has the seventh largest economy in the world and was the world's first industrialised country.

Britain has been a major world power since the 16th century, and the British Empire covered nearly 23% of the land area in the world and included about 20% of the world's population at its peak in the 19th and 20th centuries. British influence still remains strong in many of its former territories and the Commonwealth countries. It is ruled by a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state, and the Prime Minister as the head of government.

Spanking in the UKEdit

The UK has long histories of spanking and corporal punishment in various contexts, such as domestic, school, judicial, and military. Erotic spanking was also stereotypically prevalent in England during the Victorian era, and remains so today.

"Smacking" is the most common term used in Britain when referring to the spanking of children, but the word "spanking" has also become frequently used in recent times. However, "spanking" in British English usually refers only to the use of the open hand on the recipient's posterior and does not generally include the use of an implement such as a cane, unlike in American English.

Laws prohibiting the corporal punishment of children differ throughout the UK. Scotland has outlawed the striking of children and declared that children have the same legal protection against assault as adults, regardless of their age or family associations. In England and Wales, the matter is governed by s.58 of the Children Act 2004, which limits the previous "reasonable chastisement" common-law defence against an assault charge. Prosecution guidelines now effectively ban any sort of assault "unless the injury amounted to no more than temporary reddening of the skin and the injury is transient and trifling".[1] This has been interpreted to mean that an implement cannot be used, but it is not clear whether that interpretation has been tested in the courts.

Domestic spankingEdit

The most popular implements used in domestic spanking in the UK include: the birch, the cane, the strap, and the slipper. The use of these implements, however, varied across different social classes - in the late 19th century, slippers were commonly used among the lower classes of Scotland and the upper classes in England.

One common misconception is that the tawse was frequently used in domestic spanking. In fact, manufacturers restricted the sale of tawses to teachers only, but a small number of tawses have found their way into the home.

School corporal punishmentEdit

School corporal punishment was made illegal in state schools and partly publicly-funded private schools in the UK in 1986 (taking effect in 1987), and the ban was later extended to the remaining private schools.


The strap and the cane were the most widely used implements in English state schools. There was no universal convention across England on the type of implement to be used, and there were disparities even between schools in the same district. Some schools permitted any teacher to administer corporal punishment in the classroom, while others allowed only the headmaster or any senior staff to punish students. In some schools, students committing less serious offences were punished with the slipper instead of the strap or the cane.

The tawse was a Scottish invention and was seldom seen in English schools.


Historically, state schools in Scotland primarily used the birch as a spanking implement before changing to the tawse in the 19th century. 'Tawsing' could be administered by teachers in the classroom, but the tawse was mainly used on the palm of the hand rather than on the buttocks, and remained this way until 1987. Some Scottish private schools used the cane.

Judicial corporal punishmentEdit

The police and other law enforcement officers were known to have used corporal punishment on youths in the UK until the early 20th century. Although corporal punishment was often ordered by the courts, there were cases where the punishment of youths and minors, who were caught 'red handed' committing offences like shoplifting, were not authorised by either the judiciary or by their parents. However, the corporal punishment of youths, administered by persons in positions of authority, was so deeply ingrained into the national psyche, such that there were few complaints by parents about their children being punished by a policeman or law enforcement officer without their consent. A Scottish policeman even became famous for patenting a method of soaking birch rods in brine.

Judicial corporal punishment was abolished in the UK in 1948, but some Commonwealth countries and former British overseas territories, such as Singapore and Malaysia, however, still retain the practice of judicial corporal punishment from their colonial days.

Spanking artists and authorsEdit

Spanking artists from the UK include ColaKun, George Jackson Churchward (originally from England) and Lynn Paula Russell (a.k.a. Paula Meadows).

British spanking authors include Alex Birch, Rosewood, Abel and Pablo Stubbs (originally from England).

UK spanking magazinesEdit

In the Victorian era, The Pearl was one of the earliest pornographic magazines to publish spanking stories and poetry.

Beginning the early 1970s, there have been numerous spanking magazines published in the UK. The most well-known are Blushes, Februs, Janus, Kane, Roue, and Swish.

Other magazines currently in print include London Life, The Little Black Book, ITC Spanking (started in 2008), Chastised, and Get Spanked (launched in 2011).

Among the many vintage discontinued titles, there are Phoenix, Prefect, Justice, Derriere, New Derriere, Privilege Club, Privilege Plus, Obey, Command, CP Punishment, Fessee, The Governess, Schoolgirl, Scorpion, Spank Me, Strictly Spanking, Uniform Girls, Uniform International, Vixen, and Whispers.

Spanking video performersEdit

The first wave of British spanking actors from the 1980s and 90s include: Larry Barnes, Lucy Bailey, Jenny Close, Harrison Marks, Toni Francis, Sara Benachour, Linzi Drew, Sue Ellis, Christian Fennington, Sophie Fennington, Michael Dawes, John Kirwood, Vida Garman, Ivor Gold, Christie Goddard, Suzi Jarman (aka Brooke Lee, Fiona Cooper), Samantha Johnson, Tiffany Jones, Sarah Harvey Lewis, Suzi Martell, Teresa May, Barbie Mel, Miss Brown (aka Claire or Clare Brown), Miss Chambers, Miss Parker, Alison Payne, Anne Proto, Mel Penny, Stacey Rowe, Lesley Saye, Amber Scott, Gillian Taylor, Luna Winter, Penny Wise, and Dominique Wright (aka Camilla).

The second generation of 21st-century performers includes: Lucy McLean, her half-sister Amy Hunter, Nimue Allen, Lorraine Ansell, Josie Harrison-Marks, Pandora Blake, Sarah Bright (Spanking Sarah), Belinda Clark (aka Mistress Gemini), Catherine Corbett, Fae Corbin, Maisie Dee, Fatface, Yasmin Garcia, Caroline Grey, Miss Hastings (aka Miss Hastings-Gore), Adele Haze, Jimmy Holloway, Ella Hughes, Danielle Hunt, Leandra James, Rebeckah Jordan, Paul Kennedy, Lottie Kinsade, Lucy Lauren, Christina Lee (Spank Christina), Rachel Lloyd, Belinda Lawson, Amanda Lewis, Lola Marie, Miss Stricktland, Molly Malone, Paula Meadows, Nicky Montford, John Osborne, Zoe Page, Jadie Reece, Kami Robertson, Paul Rogers, Amelia Jane Rutherford, Elizabeth Simpson, Helen Stephens, Zena Stones, Leia-Ann Woods and the now-retired Rosaleen Young.

Spanking video producersEdit

The following is a list of spanking video producers based in the UK. The majority of these companies concentrate on caning scenes involving uniformed schoolgirls, as well as various scenes of domestic spanking.

ATVOD censorship of spanking/BDSM websitesEdit

Founded in 2010, the Authority for Television On Demand (ATVOD), is a non-governmental agency created to regulate "On-Demand Programme Services" (ODPS) from all websites based in the UK. Specifically, the ATVOD was set up to establish strict guidelines for adult content distributed online via streaming and other downloading services. These regulations apply the existing BBFC guidelines (controlling what can and can't be sold on DVD) to the world of online porn. This means that all adult videos sold via VoD service must meet the rating requirements for a BBFC R18 certificate. Sanctions against companies that fail to comply with ATVOD regulations include fines, suspension of service, and even criminal prosecution.

There has been much controversy and protest from adult content providers over the ATVOD's process of selecting websites for enforcement. In December 2014, new laws went into effect targeting fetish-related content (BDSM, spanking, femdom, etc). Depictions of spanking and flogging that leaves marks ("Sadomasochistic material which goes beyond trifling and transient infliction of injury"), enemas, insertion of objects such as butt plugs, age-play, BDSM pain-play (classified as "torture with instruments") and full bondage with gags and all four limbs restrained, are now banned in UK porn.

Full bondage and gagging is only acceptable if there is a safe signal (safeword) which is defined as part of the scene. Acts of corporal punishment which, if copied by the uninitiated, have the potential to cause injuries beyond what is "transient and trifling" are banned. Moderate discipline showing the reddening of the skin is acceptable, but not raised welts, blood, or bruising. Wrestling is acceptable only if knockout moves are not deployed. Facesitting and seemingly non-gentle scissoring are not acceptable.

Backlash and protestEdit

One response was the creation of Backlash an umbrella organization providing academic, legal and campaigning resources defending freedom of sexual expression.

Beginning with Adele's Sponsored Caning (Adele Haze), video producer Dreams of Spanking has created a series of ten free M/F, F/F and femdom protest videos sponsored by Backlash. These depict severe, welt-inducing canings (25 to 50 strokes) in defiance of the "transient and trifling" content rule. Company owner Pandora Blake also participated by enduring 50 cane strokes in Pandora's Sponsored Caning. The entire series is available for free viewing and downloading at the company website.

See alsoEdit


  1. Review of Section 58 of the Children Act 2004. Department for Children, Schools and Families, October 2007.